HPC is an essential tool for science and industry
In this section we will show a few examples where HPC is employed. This list is by no means exhaustive!
Galaxy formation and evolution
The Grid - CERN
- Video Grid at CERN
Weather forecasts (El hombre del tiempo)
- Aerodynamics of a F1
- CFD and wind tunnel testing has now been limited by rules. 30 units per week, 1 unit = 1 hour of wind tunnel or 1 teraflop.
Car industry, product design
Artificial intelligence, deep learning
- Clarifai demo
- Caffe demo
- Neural Networks and Deep Learning Online book
- Reactive, a startup about Kanji recognition Bloomberg
- AI and social implications
- Ethics board
Moore 's law
Paper 1965: Electronics, pp. 114–117, April 19, 1965
Synopsis: The number of components (on a single wafer) determinates the cost/component. For a given technology in the production process (state of the art) there is a minimum of this cost for a given component density. The component density where this minimum is located increases exponentially with time. So cost drives integration. The initial prediction was for the component density to double each year (extrapolation 1965-1975)
Later revised to x 2 each two years
Performance doubles every 18 months.
2015 Moor's law celebrated it's 50th birthday with remarkable success:
Applications will increasingly need to be concurrent if they want to fully exploit continuing exponential CPU throughput gains Efficiency and performance optimization will get more, not less, important
Reads about Memory Wall, Power Wall, ILP (Instruction Level Parallelism) wall:
- Dennard scaling
- The future of computers
- Post-Dennard Scaling and the final Years of Moore's Law
- 1994 - Memory wall
Ranking of the fastest (Linpack-fastest) supercomputers in the world: http://www.top500.org/
Number of Cores vs Rank
What will we probably see the next years?
High interest in HPC:
- April 2015: USA blocks export of Xeon Phi technology to China PC-World
- 15 th July 2015: China announces homegrown DSP as component in Thianhe-2A
- 29 th July 2015: Obama issues Executive Order establishing the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) White House. Next decade: exaflops and exabytes (numerical análisis meets big data)
- June 2016 New chinese chip in #1 computer
- January 2017 Trump Administration Preps Plan for Huge Cuts to Department of Energy
- March 2017 EU Ratchets up the Race to Exascale Computing
- GPU or Xeon Phi type accelerators + CPU. Higher level of integration.
- 3D Memory (like Hybrid Memory Cube), close to CPUs
- Integrate processing with memory